Expanding Opportunities: The Advantages of a BSc Degree

The Benefits of a Bachelor of Science in Technology

A bachelor of science (BSc) is a great option for students who are interested in building careers in a variety of areas. The degree offers a wide range of options and is flexible enough to cater to individual interests and goals.

The degree includes a work placement program, giving you practical skills and experience to help you stand out in the job market. It also allows you to choose a minor subject, which gives you more flexibility and enables you to tailor your degree further.

What Are the Benefits of BSc?

A BSc degree will help you develop and strengthen a range of abilities that align with employers’ expectations. You’ll learn to think critically and analytically, and enhance your problem-solving capabilities. These skills will help you throughout your career and life.

Depending on your field of study, a BSc could prepare you for a number of different jobs. For example, a BSc in chemistry would allow you to explore working with organic and inorganic compounds, while a BSc in mathematics could provide you with the skills necessary for mathematical research.

Most BSc degrees also include work experience, which gives you a head start when it comes to finding employment after graduation. Many BSc students are offered permanent roles by their employers following their placements.

Why Choose BSc?

Choosing the right degree opens up doors for your future career. It can help you find a job in a specific field and can lead to higher education options like an MSc or PhD. However, an incorrect choice can equally close those doors.

Many science students opt for a BSc because of the vast number of opportunities available in the research and development sector. The government has also taken a keen interest in strengthening this sector, offering scholarships to students.

Other benefits include the fact that it is easier to get a good job with a BSc, and you can earn more than with a BA. Some employers may prefer candidates with a BA over those with a BSc, but this is subjective and can vary by industry. It is a good idea to research the industry and job descriptions in detail before making a decision. Moreover, a BSc will give you a solid foundation to pursue further studies in the field that you love.

How to Choose a BSc?

Choosing the right course can be a difficult decision. However, it is important to remember that a BSc is not only a degree course; it also has a lot of scope for future careers. If you choose a BSc, you will be able to pursue a career in any field that is related to Science.

Before choosing your BSc, it is essential to consider what your interests are and what you want to do after graduation. Depending on your interest, you may want to focus on a specific subject area or a more broad field of study. If you are interested in a career path that would benefit from having both theoretical and practical knowledge, then a BSc is the perfect choice for you.

Another thing to consider is whether you will need to go on to a graduate level program after your bachelor’s degree. This will influence your choice of major. BA degrees tend to have a more liberal arts approach and allow you to double major, while BS degrees are more focused on the subject area and help you master the skills you will need for your career.

What to Expect

You will invest a lot of time, energy, and money in your degree. It is important to choose the right program for you, so that it is a good fit with your interests and career goals.

BSc programs offer lots of hands-on experience through labs, field work, exchanges, and opportunities to complete your own research project – adding depth to your studies. Some science programs also offer co-operative education, where you alternate periods of oncampus study with paid periods of relevant work experience.

A BSc is a great choice if you are interested in pursuing a career that relies on scientific knowledge and skills. If you are interested in studying for a BSc, it is important to make sure that your chosen university has the required entry requirements and offers the program that is right for you. If you are unsure of what program to pursue, talk to your high school guidance counselor for advice.

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Connecting Hearts through Sports Broadcasting: The Evolution and Immersive Experience of 스포츠중계

Sports broadcasting has woven itself into the fabric of our daily lives, becoming a cornerstone of modern entertainment. Whether you’re a die-hard fan or a casual observer, the allure of live sports action is undeniable. An electrifying touchdown, a last-second basket, or a home-run in extra innings—each serves as a reminder of why millions are drawn to these spectacles.

At the heart of this appeal is the accessibility provided by 스포츠중계, a term that has transcended beyond borders, echoing in the halls of global sports fandom. The evolution of broadcasting technologies has granted fans the luxury to partake in every jaw-dropping moment, irrespective of physical distance from the stadium. Now, through the magic of digital streaming, a person can enjoy their favorite sports with a click or a tap from anywhere in the world.

Engagement is at the core of any successful broadcast. It’s not just about relaying the events as they happen—it’s about crafting a narrative that resonates with the audience. Just as a maestro commands an orchestra to evoke emotions through harmony, a skilled broadcaster narrates the unfolding game in a way that heightens the excitement, tension, and ultimately, the relief or ecstasy that follows an eventful conclusion.

Adding to the immersive experience are the visuals and sounds that encapsulate the essence of being at the game. The roar of the crowd, the thud of a ball, and the whistle of the referee amplify the sensory experience, making viewers feel as though they’re in the stands without ever leaving their homes.

Nowadays, with the booming eSports industry and the constant innovation in traditional sports viewing experiences, 스포츠중계 offers an array of genres to please any viewer. From high-octane action in motorsports to the strategic depth in chess tournaments, there’s something for every taste. This spectrum has broadened the horizons and inclusivity of the sports community.

As the final whistle blows, and the crowd’s roar begins to fade, the story of the match finds its ending. With bated breath, fans across the globe reflect on the spectacle they’ve witnessed, already anticipating the next match to be broadcasted, the next story to be told. In this way, sports broadcasting is not just a medium; it’s a bridge that connects hearts to the spirit of human competition.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

1. What is 스포츠중계?
It refers to sports broadcasting, the live coverage of sports events by TV, radio, and internet streaming.

2. How has sports broadcasting changed with technology?
Technological advancements have enabled high-definition streaming, multi-camera angles, instant replays, and interactive features, enhancing the viewing experience.

3. Can I watch sports broadcasts from any country?
Yes, with the advent of internet streaming and digital platforms, one can watch sports events from around the world.

4. Are there sports broadcasts in languages other than English?
Sports broadcasts are available in many languages to cater to a global audience.

5. What makes a sports broadcast engaging?
An engaging sports broadcast often includes knowledgeable and enthusiastic commentary, high-quality visuals and sound, real-time analysis, and a connection with the audience.…

Captivating Science and Technology Images: Black Holes, Turtle Embryos, DNA Microscopy, and the Solar System

Science and Technology Pictures

Science and technology encompass the systematic study of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment, and the practical application of that knowledge. They also include the social analysis of science and technology.

Scientific photos help non-scientists understand complex issues and attract attention to important work in ways words and numbers alone cannot. From a glimpse inside a cell to a close-up of a dazzling asteroid, these science and technology pictures are stunning.

Black Hole

Black holes are regions of the cosmos so powerful that nothing, not even light, can escape them. So when scientists unveiled the first-ever image of one earlier this week—a smoky orange donut surrounded by fiery rings—it was an extraordinary feat of science, engineering and global collaboration.

The image (which actually are representations of radio waves captured by telescopes around the world) isn’t directly showing a black hole but rather a whirling pancake of hot plasma swirling at high speeds in an area called the accretion disk, which produces the ring-like features we see. The bright orange rim is the result of the Doppler effect, as matter gets sucked toward the black hole and accelerated inward, emitting light that bends around it.

It’s also evidence that supermassive black holes play a role in the life of galaxies, even far beyond their point-of-no-return boundary, where they churn and spit out jets of atoms that either boost or throttle the birth of new stars. It’s also a powerful confirmation of Albert Einstein’s theory of gravity, known as general relativity, which predicted the effects of black holes 80 years ago.

Turtle Embryo

When turtle eggs are swabbed with special stains, scientists can see which muscles will eventually become bones and joints. They also know which ones will become a head and two front flippers. The winner of the forty-fifth annual Nikon Small World Photomicrography Competition, this vivid photo by microscopy technician Teresa Zgoda and recent university graduate Teresa Kugler blends science and artistry with spectacular results.

During development, reptiles produce hormones that determine whether they will be born male or female. Scientists used a chemical, capsazepine, to suppress the activity of a gene that affects these hormones in turtle embryos. Embryos lacking this gene were incubated at different temperatures; half hatched as males, and the other half hatched as females. Researchers found that when the Kdm6b gene was active, growing turtles moved around inside their eggs toward cooler or warmer spots to find the Goldilocks zone, where the sex hormones were balanced.

This ability to shift their sex ratios in response to temperature changes may help turtles offset the effects of climate change, which are predicted to make them more likely to have female babies.

DNA Microscopy

Researchers can use the microscope to see things very small, but the device has its limitations. For example, a single change in a gene can dramatically alter how a cell produces antibodies, but it’s difficult to capture these details using a traditional microscope.

Currently, there are two ways to capture microscopy data: either by detecting electromagnetic radiation (e.g., photons or electrons) or by dissecting samples at known locations and then analyzing each fragment. DNA microscopy, which utilizes DNA “bar codes,” offers a new option, and researchers have published their results in the journal Cell.

One of the main hurdles to imaging DNA was its squishiness. “Imagine a bowl of spaghetti noodles—they’re all globbed up in weird shapes,” says Tom Perkins, head of the Wyss Institute’s atomic force microscopy lab. To make DNA more accessible, Perkins’ team combined the imaging technique of fluorescence polarization with optical tweezers. This enabled them to optically trap and manipulate DNA, squishing it into a more interpretable strand.

Solar System

The Solar System includes the Sun and everything that orbits around it, including the eight planets, their moons, asteroids and comets. The planets are held in their orbits by the Sun’s gravity, which is much stronger than that of Earth. The rotation of the planets on their own axes creates days and nights.

NSF’s Inouye Solar Telescope has captured close-up images of the Sun, revealing a pattern of turbulent “boiling” plasma. These cell-like structures are the signature of violent motions that transport heat from deep within the Sun to its surface, rising in bright centers of “cells,” cooling, and sinking back down in dark lanes.

This NASA image shows the seven planets on a scale that correctly demonstrates their relative sizes and orders of distance from the Sun, with Mercury at left close to the arc of the Sun’s horizon and Pluto at right near the edge of the Solar System. Neptune and Uranus can be seen as well, with their respective rings of icy debris.

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10 Examples of Science and Technology: Exploring the Impact of Innovation

10 Examples of Science and Technology

Science and technology studies (also known as science, technology, and society) are the study of science and its social contexts. It’s a fascinating and growing field.

New technologies often inspire scientific research. For example, the invention of medical imaging led to further study of things like star formation and black holes.

1. The Internet

The Internet is a worldwide computer network that carries information. It is used for communication, research, and many other things. The internet has changed the way scientists do their work.

It allows them to communicate with other researchers worldwide more easily. It also allows them to share resources, such as articles and books. This has greatly reduced the need for physical travel.

2. Robots

Robots are used in industries that require precision and for tasks that are too boring, repetitive or dangerous for humans. Some robots are pre-programmed and do a specific task, while others respond to people’s commands, such as the rovers that explore other planets.

Smart robots can also collaborate with people and solve problems that seemed impossible just a few years ago.

3. Artificial Intelligence

You probably associate the term artificial intelligence with self-driving cars, chatbots like OpenAI’s ChatGPT or generative AI techniques that create text and images. But this technology has much broader applications.

In this realm, there are two categories of AI: artificial narrow intelligence and artificial general intelligence. Narrow AI is reactive and has limited memory. It is the category that most of today’s applications fall under.

4. Robotics

Robotics is the science of creating and operating mechanical machines that perform tasks for human operators. It’s used in everything from exploring the harsh environment of Mars to assisting doctors during surgery or helping people who have lost limbs.

Kids learn to build and program robotics, which helps them develop problem-solving skills and think critically. It also makes STEM subjects cool and piques students’ curiosity about the world around them.

5. Biotechnology

Biotechnology is a broad term that encompasses different fields of biology. It includes everything from domesticating animals and cultivating crops to genetically engineering them.

Biotechnology allows for more precise medical treatments and lowers the risk of unforeseen side effects. It also helps create crop varieties resistant to natural calamities, pests and diseases. But these innovations can raise ethical questions. For example, gene sequencing could result in hard decisions for couples.

6. Artificial Intelligence

Scientists are using AI to help solve some of humanity’s most pressing problems. For instance, they are working to find a cure for cancer and to create clean energy.

New technologies often inspire ongoing research to perfect them. One example is the Hubble Space Telescope, which led to advanced astronomical observations. Another is the logic programming language PROLOG, which helped to create expert systems.

7. Robotics

Robotics is the field of science and technology that produces machines that replicate or substitute for human actions. In pop culture, such robots appear as characters like R2-D2 or Terminator.

Robots are used in industries where precision is important. They can clean parts or weld them together at speeds that humans cannot match. They can also enter hazardous situations such as bomb disposal sites before humans can.

8. Biomedical Research

Science has provided answers to the questions of life such as how to cure cancer and find a clean form of energy. It also provides solutions to meet our everyday needs from vaccines to insulin and a variety of medical treatments.

Science, Technology and Society (STS) is an interdisciplinary field of research that explores the social dimensions of science and technology. Its fields of study include history, philosophy, anthropology and sociology.

9. Nanotechnology

Molecular nanotechnology is the idea of manipulating matter at the atomic level to create new devices and materials. It includes subfields such as programmable matter, molecular engineering, and self-assembling nanomaterials.

Scientists are using nanotechnology to isolate and clean oil spills. They are also developing new antimicrobial nanoparticles to fight disease and infection. Nanotechnology also helps with product miniaturization to reduce weight and cost.

10. Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence is transforming science, changing how research is conducted and data analyzed. It is also being used in many different ways to create technology.

Some experts argue that AI could usher in a new renaissance of discovery. But others are concerned about the potential for bias and other problems associated with AI. Nonetheless, it is quickly becoming an indispensable tool for scientists.

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The role and importance of 슬롯 총판 in the online casino industry


슬롯 총판: Role and Importance in the Online Casino Industry

슬롯 총판

슬롯 총판 – it may sound unfamiliar, but it plays a key role in the thriving online casino industry. Wondering what it is? How does it matter? Let’s unravel the mystery.


What is 슬롯 총판?

슬롯 총판, in essence, is a distributor or a franchised seller in the online casino world. They are responsible for providing online slot games to different casino platforms, characterized by diverse themes, captivating graphics, and engaging soundtracks. They bridge the gap between game developers and online casino platforms, ensuring a constant supply of fresh and appealing games to the gambling enthusiasts.


Why is 슬롯 총판 Important?

Their importance in the online casino industry is threefold. Firstly, they help casino platforms deliver a variety of games, keeping the platform dynamic and interesting for users. Secondly, they assure the quality and fairness of games since they only collaborate with trusted and tested game developers. Finally, they help casinos reach wider audiences by featuring games attractive to different demographics, making 룰 slots more widespread and accessible.


슬롯 총판: The Connection to Game Developers

While game developers focus on creating the exciting slot games we all love, the 슬롯 총판 takes the responsibility for their distribution. By establishing a strong partnership with game developers, they ensure the steady flow and availability of top-tier games, keeping online casinos fresh and enjoyable.



In a nutshell, 슬롯 총판 plays an instrumental role in enhancing player experience in online casinos. They are the key drivers behind the variety and quality of slot games we see. Without them, online casino platforms wouldn’t be as dynamic and diversified.

## FAQ

**1. What is a 슬롯 총판?**
It is a distributor of online slot games in the casino industry, providing diverse games to various platforms.

**2. Why is 슬롯 총판 essential?**
Without them, online casinos wouldn’t have the variety and quality of games. They ensure a constant supply of fair and engaging slot games.

**3. How does 슬롯 총판 link with game developers?**
They form partnerships with game developers to distribute their games. This ensures a steady flow of exciting games to different casino platforms.

**4. Does 슬롯 총판 contribute to the popularity of online casinos?**
Yes, by providing a variety of games attractive to different demographics, 슬롯 총판 make slots more widespread and accessible.

**5. Do they assure the fairness of the games?**
Yes, they only collaborate with trusted and tested game developers, thus ensuring the game’s quality and fairness.

Unveiling the Societal and Cultural Influence on the History of Science and Technology

The History of Science and Technology

Historians studying the history of science have questioned and revised many traditional assumptions. They have challenged the popular notion that technology marches of its own predetermined accord, and they have revealed the many ways that the practices of scientists are shaped by their societies and cultures.

They have also pointed out the serious pitfalls of triumphalist narratives of scientific progress.


The origins of science and technology are a complex matter. Historians of science have a variety of ways to approach the subject, ranging from tracing a scientific concept’s genealogy through time to analyzing its current state for hidden flaws.

Historians of science and technology have also studied the interaction between science and society, especially as it affects social groups with different values and priorities. This is a large part of the motivation behind the field of science and technology studies, which encompasses the histories of physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, engineering, medicine, and many other disciplines.

The Bancroft Library has an extensive collection of materials related to the history of science and technology, including bound, edited interview transcripts and tape-recorded interviews in its Oral History Program. These oral histories are often used in the teaching of the history of science and technology, but they have a broader significance as well. They reveal that science is not a neutral pursuit, but is profoundly affected by the values and assumptions of those who conduct it.


Obviously, a compressed account of technological development must adopt a framework that will allow it to make some allowances for the specific features of particular periods. The pattern chosen is largely chronological, with emphasis placed on the major events and developments that took place at each period.

Scientific research relies on evolving technology to conduct experiments and validate theories. For example, Galileo used a telescope to upend the prevailing belief that the sun revolved around the earth and prove that it orbited the moon instead.

The development of advanced tools enabled scientists to discover the inner workings of the human body, other planets, and the universe. Scientific discovery has led to revolutionary changes in medicine, agriculture, transportation, telecommunications and many other areas of society.

The Bancroft Library has a wide range of collections that document the history of science and technology. These include bound, edited interview transcripts and taped interviews, as well as manuscript materials. The Library’s Oral History Program and the Center for Science, Technology and Culture have also conducted many oral histories of individuals involved in such fields as physics, chemistry, medical physics, virology, aeronautics and the development of computer hardware.


Science and technology are woven together: scientists rely on evolving technologies to conduct experiments; for example, Galileo used his telescope to demonstrate that the Sun revolves around the Earth. Historians explore the social, political and cultural impacts of science and technology in historical context.

The History of Science and Medicine Division cultivates a deep understanding of the history of science and medicine in the context of the larger intellectual environment. Its collections offer insights into the ways in which scientists change their minds dramatically, and compete quite vigorously, to defend ideas in the face of overwhelming counterevidence.

The division also supports scholarly work in the history of science and medicine through graduate fellowships and assistantships, teaching, and event programming. Its extensive holdings include the Dibner Library of Rare Books and the Heralds of Science Collection, one of the premier collections in this area. The division is committed to preserving these materials for future generations of scholars and students.


Whether studying ancient tools used to harvest and process plants for food (farmers’ ploughs, shovels, knives and sickles, pestles and pounders) or the revolutionary new methods of measurement Galileo applied with his telescope to upend traditional beliefs in the earth-centered universe, students who study the history of science and technology gain insights into how our understanding of nature has changed over time. They also learn that scientific endeavors look and operate differently at different points in history, and they are influenced by their cultures and societies.

Constructivist historians of science have emphasized the importance of cultural factors in shaping scientific developments. For example, they have shown that supposedly self-evident features of experimentation—such as precision measurement—are shaped by and contribute to an industrializing culture. Nineteenth-century scientific managers such as George Biddell Airy viewed their observatories and laboratories as industrial workplaces, and they relied on regimes of routinized measurement to discipline their workforces.

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Advancements of the Aztecs in Science and Technology

Science and Technology of the Aztecs

Aztecs made impressive advancements in a number of areas including agriculture, education and medicine. They were well known for their compulsory education system where both boys and girls had to go to school.

They invented farming methods for swampy land and made a variety of tools. They also had two calendars one for religious ceremonies and another for tracking time.


One of the most amazing things about Aztec culture was their ability to thrive in a difficult environment, surrounded by water. One of the most significant pieces of engineering that allowed the Aztecs to do this was their aqueducts.

The aqueducts were used to bring freshwater into Tenochtitlan, their capital city built on an island in Lake Texcoco. This water was essential for the survival of Tenochtitlan, as well as a number of other important religious and cultural activities.

The aqueducts had to overcome many environmental challenges, including sand and clay that were prone to flooding. The aqueducts also had to be designed in a way that would allow them to handle the changing flow of water due to evaporation and leakage. The aqueducts were also designed to ensure that the aqueducts stayed fresh and clean, which meant they had to have a very effective drainage system. The Aztecs used two main methods of irrigation for their crops: terracing and chinampas.

Solar Calendars

The Aztecs were keenly aware of the passage of time and developed sophisticated calendars to track the seasons and operate a farming system that fed millions. Their most famous monolith, the Sun Stone, has long been interpreted as a huge solar calendar. But new research suggests it may have a different function after all.

The Sun Stone is decorated with concentric circles of days, ‘weeks’ and years. The researchers suggest that these could be calibration markers, which would have helped the Aztecs achieve solar accuracy over a 52-year cycle.

The Aztecs used two interrelated calendar systems; one, called the tonalpohualli or ritual cycle, had 260 days and was religious in nature while the other, the xiuhmolpilli or civil calendar, had 365 days divided into 18 “months” of 20 days and five unlucky days tacked onto the end. Each day in the ritual year had a name and was associated with a particular deity, and this combination of names and numbers was used for divination.

Floating Gardens

The Aztecs were masters at agricultural technology, especially in the water. Their floating gardens, called chinampas, transformed swampy wetlands into fertile farmland, which helped to feed the massive empire.

When the conquistador Hernan Cortes arrived in Tenochtitlan in 1519, he saw a city in the middle of a lake with lush gardens spreading out around it like an archipelago. The gardens were built on chinampas, raft-like structures constructed of foundation stones from the bottom of lakes and held together with reed mats.

Chinampas are still used today, including in the famed Xochimilco wetlands park, which is home to countless canals and a thriving ecosystem. And the Aztecs were also keen observers of nature, and experimented with a huge range of plants for their medicinal properties. For example, the passion flower was used to help put patients to sleep or ease pain during surgery, much as it is in modern medicine. The tequila plant, meanwhile, was used as an effective antispasmodic.


The Aztecs made bronze weapons, including the tlaximaltepoztli (figure 1.2). They also used gold and silver ornaments to signify wealth and power. They believed metal possessed animate characteristics and divine associations.

Metallurgy is the science that deals with extracting metals from their ores, purifying them and alloying them to create useful objects. By the time the Spanish arrived in Tenochtitlan, many Mesoamerican tradespeople had organized themselves into guilds that helped them hone their skills and protect their designs from competition.

Anthropologist Terry Stocker has suggested that one reason the Aztecs didn’t develop metalworking to a greater extent was that they already had obsidian, a naturally-occurring rock harder than steel and able to produce murderously sharp blades. Plus, obsidian leaves a record of its history in its fractured surface. When cast into bells, a form that was important to the Aztecs for reproducing the sounds of thunder and rain in their ceremonies, bronze was also a good replacement for obsidian.

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China’s Science and Technology: From Basic Research to Innovation

The Science and Technology of China

The world is changing fast, and innovation is the driving force. But how can humanity keep pace? One way is through science and technology.

USTC is a low-profile university that aims high. Its researchers are developing such groundbreaking technologies as brain-inspired intelligence technology, fire science, and particle detection.

Many people are surprised to learn that papermaking, printing, gunpowder, and the mariner’s compass all came from China.

Basic research

Historically, research in China has primarily focused on applied science with the goal of producing new technological capabilities. Increasingly, however, the country is reaching the frontiers of several high-tech industries, such as semiconductors and biopharmaceuticals, and the research needed to do so calls for a focus on basic research that creates scientific knowledge that can be translated into technological innovation.

Some metrics, such as the number of peer-reviewed articles authored by Chinese scientists and the percentage that are deemed “high impact,” suggest that China has reached parity with the U.S. in certain disciplines, such as chemistry and physics. But critics argue that these indicators ignore the quality of research and do not adequately measure its value to society.

The party and the government attach great importance to basic research. According to the National Guideline on Science and Technology Development, strengthening basic research is a vital requirement for achieving high-level S&T self-reliance and self-improvement. It is also key to addressing critical technology issues at the source and at the fundamental level.


The commercialization process is a key issue in China’s quest to become an innovation-oriented country. It requires the state to allow the autonomy of the research community and a true market orientation for enterprises in innovation. This is necessary to reduce the impact of conflicts among vested interests and to maintain social stability. The commercialization of GM crops is a case in point. Despite the government’s incentives, companies are still not reporting accurate profit numbers. The resulting confusion makes it difficult for the government to make informed decisions about industrial policy and funding.

In addition, the lack of effective macro-level coordination is a serious concern. Currently, the State Leading Group for Science & Technology only acts as an advisory body and is not empowered to make macro-level policy decisions. Furthermore, the Ministry of Science and Technology is only one ministry within the state, which can be influenced by other ministries with different interests. This makes it difficult for the ministry to coordinate with other agencies and protect scientific research.

Technology transfer

The dominant narrative in the United States, and some other countries, is that China acquires advanced technology from multinational companies through a combination of forced technology transfer and outright theft. While this narrative has merit, the reality is more complicated.

China’s industrial policy lays out a goal of replacing leading Western firms in key sectors such as the traditional auto industry and high-speed trains with Chinese competitors. Several de jure and de facto measures have been used to achieve this objective, including requirements that foreign MNCs must transfer technology to a local joint venture as a condition for market access.

These requirements have been particularly effective in the European Union, where many of these transfers are made through Chinese professional associations (CPAs). Because CPAs are not transparent about their operations, it is impossible to determine whether individual groups act as instruments of the Chinese state and Party or simply exchange technology because that is part of their mission. Future research should seek to identify overt links between specific CPAs and China’s science and technology ecosystem, especially in relation to military-civil fusion efforts and research parks.


The Xi era 14th Five-Year Plan calls for developing national strategic S&T forces, creating world-class comprehensive innovation platforms at national laboratories and national scientific research centers, and boosting the S&T ability of enterprises and talent. These efforts should focus on key and core technologies. They should also be seen in the context of the broader dream of China’s rejuvenation.

One of the great misperceptions about modern China is that it is not capable of innovation at the frontier level. In fact, many of the innovations we take for granted today were developed in China: papermaking, printing, gunpowder, the mariner’s compass, decimal mathematics, and a number of pharmaceuticals.

China will need to increase the gross rate of higher education enrolment and R&D investment, and nurture more creativity. It will also have to address concerns about its research integrity, and improve its regulatory and ecological environments. Finally, it will need to expand international collaborations and open Chinese research projects to foreign applicants.

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